What Are Solar Panels and How Do They Work?

SolarSusan Rai
Solar panels have become increasingly popular in recent years as a renewable energy solution. Harnessing solar power, these panels offer a clean and sustainable way to generate electricity for homes, businesses, and even entire communities. If you've ever wondered what they are made of or how solar panels work, you're in the right place.

In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the fascinating world of solar panels. We will explore their composition, the process by which they generate electricity, and the other components that make up a solar system. By the end, you'll have a solid understanding of how solar panels work and the benefits they provide. So let's get started!

What Are Solar Panels Made of?

Solar panels, also known as photovoltaic (PV) panels, are made up of several key components. The most common type of solar panels used today are based on silicon technology, specifically crystalline silicon solar cells. Here are the main materials and components used in the construction of solar panels.

Solar Cells

The basic building block of a solar panel is the solar cell. Solar cells are typically made of silicon, which is a semiconductor material. Silicon atoms are bonded together to form a crystal lattice structure that allows them to convert sunlight into electricity through the photovoltaic effect.


The back sheet is a layer on the back of the solar panel that acts as an insulator and protects the solar cells from moisture, heat, and other environmental factors. It is typically made of a polymer material like PET, PVF or PVDF.

Frame and Mounting

Solar panels are typically framed using aluminum or steel structures to provide structural support and protection. The frame also facilitates the mounting of solar panels on various surfaces, such as rooftops or ground-mounted structures.

Junction Box

The junction box is an important component located on the back of the solar panel. It houses the electrical connections between the solar cells and serves as the interface for connecting multiple panels in an array. The junction box may also include bypass diodes to prevent power loss caused by shading or mismatched cells.

How Do Solar Panels Work?

Solar panels work by harnessing the photovoltaic effect, which is the process by which light energy is converted into electrical energy. Here is a simplified explanation of how solar panels work:

  • Absorption of Sunlight: Solar panels are made up of individual solar cells, typically made of silicon, as we mentioned above. When sunlight hits the solar panel, the photons (particles of light) transfer their energy to the electrons in the silicon atoms.
  • Generation of Electric Field: The absorbed energy from sunlight causes some of the electrons in the silicon atoms to break free from their atomic bonds, creating free electrons. This separation of charges creates an electric field within the solar cell.
  • Collection of Electrons: The electric field within the solar cell forces the free electrons to move towards one side of the cell, while the positively charged "holes" left behind by the liberated electrons move towards the other side. This separation of charges creates a voltage difference, similar to a battery.
  • Flow of Current: When an external circuit is connected to the solar panel, the free electrons are forced to flow through the circuit to reach the side of the cell with the positively charged holes. This flow of electrons constitutes an electric current that can be used to power electrical devices or charge batteries.

anker-solar-panelsWhat Are Other Components of a Solar System?

In addition to solar panels, a complete solar system typically includes several other components to ensure efficient energy conversion, utilization, and storage. Here are three key components commonly found in solar systems:


An inverter is an essential component both for big and small solar panel systems. Solar panels generate direct current (DC) electricity, but most appliances and the electrical grid operate on alternating current (AC). The inverter converts the DC electricity produced by the solar panels into AC electricity that can be used to power household appliances or fed back into the grid. Inverters also ensure that the solar system synchronizes with the grid for safety reasons. In general, you need to buy an inverter separately, but some portable solar generators with small solar panels for camping, like Anker 757 Solar Generator with three Anker solar panels, usually integrate an inverter in their power station to make the charging process easier.

anker-757-solar-generatorCharge Controller

Charge controllers, also known as solar regulators, are used in solar systems that include batteries for energy storage. They regulate and control the charging process of the batteries to prevent overcharging or over-discharging, which can damage the batteries. They can also protect the batteries from excessive current or voltage fluctuations.


Batteries are optional components in solar systems, but they are often used to store excess electricity generated by the solar panels for use during times when sunlight is unavailable, such as at night or during cloudy days. Solar systems with batteries are commonly used in off-grid applications or in areas with unreliable or no access to the electrical grid. The stored energy in the batteries can be used to power appliances, lights, or other electrical devices.

How Does a Solar Panel System Work?

We have known that a solar panel works by capturing sunlight and converting it into electricity, which is DC current. Then it's the turn of the inverter to come into play. The generated DC current flows into an inverter, which converts it into AC power to power appliances and electronics directly, reducing or eliminating the need for energy from the grid. Excess electricity can be stored in batteries or fed back into the grid, depending on the system configuration and net metering policies in place.


In conclusion, as we enter 2023, solar panels have solidified their position as a key player in the renewable energy landscape. They provide a clean and sustainable solution for generating electricity by harnessing the power of the sun. With advancements in technology, solar panels have become more efficient, affordable, and accessible to a wide range of users. They offer homeowners and businesses the opportunity to reduce their carbon footprint, lower energy costs, and gain energy independence, enabling us to transition towards a more sustainable and resilient energy system that benefits both the planet and our wallets.